Browse the latest titles on educational assement theory, policy and practice

Systematic divergence between teacher and test-based assessment: literature review​

Systematic divergence between teacher and test-based assessment: literature review​
Ming Wei Lee and Paul Newton
17 May, 2021

Ofqual’s equalities analyses last year concluded that the centre assessment grades (CAGs) of summer 2020 did not systemically disadvantage students on the basis of their protected characteristics or socioeconomic status, suggesting that the teacher judgements/predictions underlying CAGs in 2020 did not differ from the mainly exam-based assessments in 2018 and 2019 in susceptibility to bias. Given the conceptual distinction between teacher prediction of prospective performance and teacher assessment of current attainment, a further literature review was conducted this year on systematic divergence between results from teacher and test-based assessments, to raise awareness of potential risks to the dependability of assessment results which are based entirely on teacher judgements.
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Advancing Human Assessment

Advancing Human Assessment Book Cover Advancing Human Assessment
Randy E. Bennett, Matthias von Davier,
October 17, 2017

​This book describes the extensive contributions made toward the advancement of human assessment by scientists from one of the world’s leading research institutions, Educational Testing Service. The book’s four major sections detail research and development in measurement and statistics, education policy analysis and evaluation, scientific psychology, and validity. Many of the developments presented have become de-facto standards in educational and psychological measurement, including in item response theory (IRT), linking and equating, differential item functioning (DIF), and educational surveys like the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), the Programme of international Student Assessment (PISA), the Progress of International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS) and the Trends in Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS). In addition to its comprehensive coverage of contributions to the theory and methodology of educational and psychological measurement and statistics, the book gives significant attention to ETS work in cognitive, personality, developmental, and social psychology, and to education policy analysis and program evaluation. The chapter authors are long-standing experts who provide broad coverage and thoughtful insights that build upon decades of experience in research and best practices for measurement, evaluation, scientific psychology, and education policy analysis. Opening with a chapter on the genesis of ETS and closing with a synthesis of the enormously diverse set of contributions made over its 70-year history, the book is a useful resource for all interested in the improvement of human assessment.

This book is open access under a CC BY-NC 2.5 license.​​

Comparability of Large- Scale Educational Assessments: Issues and Recommendations.

Comparability Of Large-Scale Educational Assessments: Issues And Recommendations Book Cover Comparability Of Large-Scale Educational Assessments: Issues And Recommendations
Berman, A. I., Haertel, E. H., & Pellegrino, J. W. (Eds.).
National Academy of Education
Public Access, Digital Object Identifier: 10.31094/2020/1


This National Academy of Education (NAEd) volume provides guidance to key stakeholders on how to accurately report and interpret comparability assertions concerning large-scale educational assessments as well as how to ensure greater comparability by paying close attention to key aspects of assessment design, content, and procedures. The goal of the volume is to provide guidance to relevant state-level educational assessment and accountability decision makers, leaders, and coordinators; consortia members; technical advisors; vendors; and the educational measurement community regarding how much and what types of variation in assessment content and procedures can be allowed, while still maintaining comparability across jurisdictions and student populations. At the same time, the larger takeaways from this volume will hopefully provide guidance to policy makers using assessment data to enact legislation and regulations and to district- and school-level leadership to determine resource allocations, and also provide greater contextual understanding for those in the media using test scores to make comparability determinations.

Game-Based Assessment Revisited

Game-Based Assessment Revisited Book Cover Game-Based Assessment Revisited
Dirk Ifenthaler, Yoon Jeon Kim,
December 10, 2019

The capabilities and possibilities of emerging game-based learning technologies bring about a new perspective of learning and instruction. This, in turn, necessitates alternative ways to assess the kinds of learning that are taking place in the game-based environments. The field has been broadening the focus of assessment in game environments (i.e., what we measure), developing processes and methodologies that go beyond psychometrics practices (i.e., how we go about assessment in games), and implementing the game-based assessment (GBA) in real contexts. The current state of the field calls for a revisit of this topic to understand what we have learned from the research on this topic, and how the GBA work changed how the field thinks about assessment beyond game environments. Accordingly, this comprehensive volume covers the current state of research, methodology, and technology of game-based assessment. It features four major themes: what we are measuring in games, how GBA has influenced how people do assessment beyond games, new methods and practices, and implementations of GBA. The audience for this volume includes researchers, graduate students, teachers, and professional practitioners in the areas of education, instructional design, educational psychology, academic and organizational development, and instructional technology.

Counteracting Methodological Errors in Behavioral Research

Counteracting Methodological Errors in Behavioral Research Book Cover Counteracting Methodological Errors in Behavioral Research
Gideon J. Mellenbergh
May 27, 2019

This book describes methods to prevent avoidable errors and to correct unavoidable ones within the behavioral sciences. A distinguishing feature of this work is that it is accessible to students and researchers of substantive fields of the behavioral sciences and related fields (e.g., health sciences and social sciences). Discussed are methods for errors that come from human and other factors, and methods for errors within each of the aspects of empirical studies. This book focuses on how empirical research is threatened by different types of error, and how the behavioral sciences in particular are vulnerable due to the study of human behavior and human participation in studies. Methods to counteract errors are discussed in depth including how they can be applied in all aspects of empirical studies: sampling of participants, design and implementation of the study, instrumentation and operationalization of theoretical variables, analysis of the data, and reporting of the study results. Students and researchers of methodology, psychology, education, and statistics will find this book to be particularly valuable. Methodologists can use the book to advice clients on methodological issues of substantive research.

The Primacy of Pisa

The Primacy of Pisa Book Cover The Primacy of Pisa
Joseph M. Piro
Lexington Books
September 15, 2019

Every nation in the world wants to know where its school system fits into the global education hierarchy. This book discusses how PISA (Programme for International Student Assessment) meets this need and why its influence extends beyond education and into the corridors of government, social, economic, and media power.

Theoretical and Practical Advances in Computer-based Educational Measurement

Theoretical and Practical Advances in Computer-based Educational Measurement Book Cover Theoretical and Practical Advances in Computer-based Educational Measurement
Bernard P. Veldkamp

This open access book presents a large number of innovations in the world of operational testing. It brings together different but related areas and provides insight in their possibilities, their advantages and drawbacks.
The book not only addresses improvements in the quality of educational measurement, innovations in (inter)national large scale assessments, but also several advances in psychometrics and improvements in computerized adaptive testing, and it also offers examples on the impact of new technology in assessment.
Due to its nature, the book will appeal to a broad audience within the educational measurement community. It contributes to both theoretical knowledge and also pays attention to practical implementation of innovations in testing technology.
This book is open access (free download)

Handbook of Formative Assessment in the Disciplines

Handbook of Formative Assessment in the Disciplines Book Cover Handbook of Formative Assessment in the Disciplines
Heidi Andrade, Randy E. Bennett, Gregory J. Cizek,
Academic achievement

The Handbook of Formative Assessment in the Disciplines meaningfully addresses current developments in the field, offering a unique and timely focus on domain dependency. Building from an updated definition of formative assessment, the book covers the integration of measurement principles into practice; the operationalization of formative assessment within specific domains, beyond generic strategies; evolving research directions including student involvement and self-regulation; and new approaches to the challenges of incorporating formative assessment training into pre-service and in-service educator training. As supporters of large-scale testing programs increasingly consider the potential of formative assessments to improve teaching and learning, this handbook advances the subject through novel frameworks, intersections of theory, research, and practice, and attention to discernible disciplines. Written for instructors, graduate students, researchers, and policymakers, each chapter provides expert perspectives on the procedures and evaluations that enable teachers to adapt teaching and learning in-process toward student achievement. policymakers, each chapter provides expert perspectives on the procedures and evaluations that enable teachers to adapt teaching and learning in-process toward student achievement.

A Course in Rasch Measurement Theory

A Course in Rasch Measurement Theory Book Cover A Course in Rasch Measurement Theory
David Andrich, Ida Marais,
July 24, 2019

This book applies Rasch measurement theory to the fields of education, psychology, sociology, marketing and health outcomes in order to measure various social constructs. The chief focus is on first principles of both the theory and its applications. Because software is readily available to carry out analyses of real data, numerous small examples are provided in the book. The software used in these examples, and which is helpful in working through the text, is RUMM2030 (Rasch unidimensional models for measurement). The book’s main goals are to equip researchers with the confidence they need in order to be in control of the analysis and interpretation of data, and to make professional rather than primarily statistical decisions mechanically. Because statistical principles are necessarily involved, reviews of the requisite statistics are provided in the Appendix. The content is based on courses that have been taught both online and in intensive form for over two decades. Although first principles are emphasised, much of the book is based on research conducted by the two authors and their colleagues.

Classroom Assessment and Educational Measurement

Classroom Assessment and Educational Measurement Book Cover Classroom Assessment and Educational Measurement
Susan M. Brookhart, James H. McMillan,
Classroom environment

Classroom Assessment and Educational Measurementexplores the ways in which the theory and practice of both educational measurement and the assessment of student learning in classroom settings mutually inform one another. Chapters by assessment and measurement experts consider the nature of classroom assessment information, from student achievement to affective and socio-emotional attributes; how teachers interpret and work with assessment results; and emerging issues in assessment such as digital technologies and diversity/inclusion. This book uniquely considers the limitations of applying large-scale educational measurement theory to classroom assessment and the adaptations necessary to make this transfer useful. Researchers, graduate students, industry professionals, and policymakers will come away with an essential understanding of how the classroom assessment context is essential to broadening contemporary educational measurement perspectives.